249. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – HFpEF Diagnosis and Management with Dr. Jane Wilcox


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It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Loie Farina (Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Fellow at Northwestern University) joins Dr. Jane Wilcox (Chief of the Section of Heart Failure Treatment and Recovery at Northwestern University) to discuss the nuances of HFpEF diagnosis and management. Dr. Wilcox is also the Associate Director of the T1 Center for Cardiovascular Therapeutics in the Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute and Director of the Myocardial Recovery Clinic at Northwestern University. Dr. Wilcox is a prolific researcher, clinician, and thought leader in Heart Failure and we are honored to have her on CardioNerds Rounds! Notes were drafted by Dr. Karan Desai. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes. Speaker disclosures: None Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - HFpEF Diagnosis and Management Case #1 Synopsis: A woman in her 80s with a history of HFpEF presented with worsening dyspnea on exertion over the course of a year but significantly worsening over the past two months. Her other history includes prior breast cancer with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, permanent atrial fibrillation with AV node ablation and CRT-P, and CKD Stage III. She presented for an outpatient RHC with exercise to further characterize her HFpEF. Her echo showed normal LV size, no LVH, LVEF of 50%, decreased RV systolic function, severe left atrial enlargement, significantly elevated E/e’ and mild MR. Right heart catheterization showed moderately elevated bi-ventricular filling pressures at rest but with passive leg raise and Stage 1 exercise the wedge pressure rose significantly. We were asked to comment on management. Case #1 Takeaways Amongst the things that were discussed were the role of specific therapies in symptomatic patients with HFpEF. In patients with HFpEF and documented congestion, they will require diuretic therapy for symptomatic relief. But in addition to diuretic therapy, we discussed starting HFpEF-specific therapies. Amongst, those specific therapies mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. In multiple trials that have included patients with HFPEF, SGLT2i have reduced the risk of hospitalization. This includes the EMPEROR-PRESERVED Trial (see the CardioNerds Journal Club discussion on the trial) in which nearly 6000 patients with NYHA Class II-IV symptoms, EF > 40% and elevated NT-proBNP with a prior HF hospitalization within the past 12 months were randomized to Empagliflozin or placebo. The primary outcome – death from CV causes or hospitalization for Heart Failure – was significantly lower in the SGLT2i arm (13.8% vs 17.1%, 95% CI 0.69-0.90, P <0.001). In regards to MRA, an important trial was the TOPCAT trial which randomized patients with symptomatic HF and LVEF > 45% to receive either spironolactone or placebo. The primary endpoint (death from CV cause, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for HF) was not statistically different between treatment arms. Of note, however, there were concerns for regional differences which is outlined well in this NEJM Evidence piece. Case #2 Synopsis: A woman in her 70s with history of hypertension, obesity,

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